top of page

Вязальный форум

Открытая·19 друзей

IoT Based Control Networks And Intelligent Syst...

The field has evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, including ubiquitous computing, commodity sensors, increasingly powerful embedded systems, as well as machine learning.[9] Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), independently and collectively enable the Internet of things.[10] In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the "smart home", including devices and appliances (such as lighting fixtures, thermostats, home security systems, cameras, and other home appliances) that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers. IoT is also used in healthcare systems.[11]

IoT Based Control Networks and Intelligent Syst...


A smart home or automated home could be based on a platform or hubs that control smart devices and appliances.[36] For instance, using Apple's HomeKit, manufacturers can have their home products and accessories controlled by an application in iOS devices such as the iPhone and the Apple Watch.[37][38] This could be a dedicated app or iOS native applications such as Siri.[39] This can be demonstrated in the case of Lenovo's Smart Home Essentials, which is a line of smart home devices that are controlled through Apple's Home app or Siri without the need for a Wi-Fi bridge.[39] There are also dedicated smart home hubs that are offered as standalone platforms to connect different smart home products and these include the Amazon Echo, Google Home, Apple's HomePod, and Samsung's SmartThings Hub.[40] In addition to the commercial systems, there are many non-proprietary, open source ecosystems; including Home Assistant, OpenHAB and Domoticz.[41][42]

Specialized sensors can also be equipped within living spaces to monitor the health and general well-being of senior citizens, while also ensuring that proper treatment is being administered and assisting people to regain lost mobility via therapy as well.[57] These sensors create a network of intelligent sensors that are able to collect, process, transfer, and analyze valuable information in different environments, such as connecting in-home monitoring devices to hospital-based systems.[51] Other consumer devices to encourage healthy living, such as connected scales or wearable heart monitors, are also a possibility with the IoT.[58] End-to-end health monitoring IoT platforms are also available for antenatal and chronic patients, helping one manage health vitals and recurring medication requirements.[59]

The IoT can connect various manufacturing devices equipped with sensing, identification, processing, communication, actuation, and networking capabilities.[70] Network control and management of manufacturing equipment, asset and situation management, or manufacturing process control allow IoT to be used for industrial applications and smart manufacturing.[71] IoT intelligent systems enable rapid manufacturing and optimization of new products and rapid response to product demands.[54]

Another example of a large deployment is the one completed by New York Waterways in New York City to connect all the city's vessels and be able to monitor them live 24/7. The network was designed and engineered by Fluidmesh Networks, a Chicago-based company developing wireless networks for critical applications. The NYWW network is currently providing coverage on the Hudson River, East River, and Upper New York Bay. With the wireless network in place, NY Waterway is able to take control of its fleet and passengers in a way that was not previously possible. New applications can include security, energy and fleet management, digital signage, public Wi-Fi, paperless ticketing and others.[95]

Significant numbers of energy-consuming devices (e.g. lamps, household appliances, motors, pumps, etc.) already integrate Internet connectivity, which can allow them to communicate with utilities not only to balance power generation but also helps optimize the energy consumption as a whole.[54] These devices allow for remote control by users, or central management via a cloud-based interface, and enable functions like scheduling (e.g., remotely powering on or off heating systems, controlling ovens, changing lighting conditions etc.).[54] The smart grid is a utility-side IoT application; systems gather and act on energy and power-related information to improve the efficiency of the production and distribution of electricity.[96] Using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) Internet-connected devices, electric utilities not only collect data from end-users, but also manage distribution automation devices like transformers.[54]

IoT intelligence can be offered at three levels: IoT devices, Edge/Fog nodes, and Cloud computing.[122] The need for intelligent control and decision at each level depends on the time sensitiveness of the IoT application. For example, an autonomous vehicle's camera needs to make real-time obstacle detection to avoid an accident. This fast decision making would not be possible through transferring data from the vehicle to cloud instances and return the predictions back to the vehicle. Instead, all the operation should be performed locally in the vehicle. Integrating advanced machine learning algorithms including deep learning into IoT devices is an active research area to make smart objects closer to reality. Moreover, it is possible to get the most value out of IoT deployments through analyzing IoT data, extracting hidden information, and predicting control decisions. A wide variety of machine learning techniques have been used in IoT domain ranging from traditional methods such as regression, support vector machine, and random forest to advanced ones such as convolutional neural networks, LSTM, and variational autoencoder.[123][122]

In semi-open or closed loops (i.e., value chains, whenever a global finality can be settled) the IoT will often be considered and studied as a complex system[143] due to the huge number of different links, interactions between autonomous actors, and its capacity to integrate new actors. At the overall stage (full open loop) it will likely be seen as a chaotic environment (since systems always have finality). As a practical approach, not all elements on the Internet of things run in a global, public space. Subsystems are often implemented to mitigate the risks of privacy, control and reliability. For example, domestic robotics (domotics) running inside a smart home might only share data within and be available via a local network.[144] Managing and controlling a high dynamic ad hoc IoT things/devices network is a tough task with the traditional networks architecture, Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides the agile dynamic solution that can cope with the special requirements of the diversity of innovative IoT applications.[145][146]

Some scholars and activists argue that the IoT can be used to create new models of civic engagement if device networks can be open to user control and inter-operable platforms. Philip N. Howard, a professor and author, writes that political life in both democracies and authoritarian regimes will be shaped by the way the IoT will be used for civic engagement. For that to happen, he argues that any connected device should be able to divulge a list of the "ultimate beneficiaries" of its sensor data and that individual citizens should be able to add new organisations to the beneficiary list. In addition, he argues that civil society groups need to start developing their IoT strategy for making use of data and engaging with the public.[199]

The U.S. National Intelligence Council in an unclassified report maintains that it would be hard to deny "access to networks of sensors and remotely-controlled objects by enemies of the United States, criminals, and mischief makers... An open market for aggregated sensor data could serve the interests of commerce and security no less than it helps criminals and spies identify vulnerable targets. Thus, massively parallel sensor fusion may undermine social cohesion, if it proves to be fundamentally incompatible with Fourth-Amendment guarantees against unreasonable search."[266] In general, the intelligence community views the Internet of things as a rich source of data.[267]

IoT has different methodologies such as smart dustbin, monitoring environment, IoT based irrigation system, smart healthcare system, and traffic control. In healthcare system, IoT brings gadget for monitoring health [2]. Health data can be accessed with the help of IoT by using sensors. Healthcare is a system which is used to improve health and help in treating diseases [3].

The IoT based systems are equipped with body sensor networks within telemedicine systems. They include devices with special type of nodes that sense periodic difference of patient data; to check the ventilation conditions for the patients in rooms, sensors are used to collect data for different measures contributing to ventilation process of a room. These sensors are programmed to assess data of different ranges for temperature, pressure, humidity, and other significant environmental variables.

These arrangements help to monitor the patient conditions remotely. The system can send periodic reports to the hospital and maintain the patient history. The hospital staff can view the data and prepare the treatment plan for the patient under observation. The second type of devices used in IoT healthcare systems is based on wireless sensor networks. The situation is more complex than the above scenario in terms of remote area patient monitoring and management task. In some situations, IoT is the most reliable and cheapest solution, and the relationship between different devices and interactive communication systems also needs to be investigated with more formal objectives.

The methodology of IoT for smart home, vehicle parking, and traffic control is different as compared to the health monitoring and management systems. The one obvious benefit is to monitor the patients 24/7 [26], which is almost impossible with manpower. The second goal achieved by IoT based solution is to monitor primary measures needs to determine the patient conditions, and treatment plan may include pulse rate, body temperature, respiratory rate, body position, blood pressure, ECG, and glucose level. These sensor networks are connected through Arduino board to collect the information through attached sensors. The collected information can be transmitted to the server and further refined for decision making or decision support systems. 041b061a72

О группе

Добро пожаловать в группу о вязании. Публикуйте свои готов...


bottom of page